To make a great samurai sword the requirements are good raw materials, appropriate equipment, and a skilled smith. The forging process is called “tanren” in Japanese. Just as a master sword maker crafts the blade with heat and hammer, the Aikidoist builds courage, knowledge, and empathy through sweat and perseverance. Thus, Aikido is a form of “seishin tanren”, i.e., spiritual forging of the mind, body, and breath.

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