In his excellent description of Kendo’s history and philosophy (Kendo: Culture of the Sword [2015]) Alexander Bennett states his view of the purposes of Kendo training:

  1. To foster strength in mind and body in order to overcome challenges and adversity
  2. To develop confidence fortified with humility to identify and rectify failings
  3. To cultivate empathy, respect and the capacity to assist others when needed
  4. To nurture a sense of gratitude and a zest for life
  5. To encourage continued awareness (zanshin) of one’s surroundings and predicaments

All of this applies to every Japanese Budo including Aikido.

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